Mineral water is groundwater extracted from the depths of the planet. Our planet’s crust is primarily composed of minerals and, in terms of thickness, it can even exceed seventy kilometres. Water bearing the designation of ‘mineral’ contains a minimum of one thousand milligrams of solids per litre. The mineral content originates from the planet’s crust and is determined by the chemical composition of the local rocks, thermal conditions and pressure.
In balneology, saline waters are defined as chloride-sodium waters containing a minimum of fifteen grams of NaCl per litre; in other words, at a concentration of 1.5%. Water with a higher NaCl concentration is classified as brine.
Natural saline waters emerged many millions of years ago, when part of the primaeval ocean, together with all the life forms contained within it, was covered by a thick layer of rock as a result of Earth’s tectonic movements. In essence, the saline waters drawn from the depths of our planet are seas which sank underground. The slow, gradual decay of organic substances has rendered them rich in numerous valued minerals. Being cut off from the outer world for many years has protected them from the pollutants in which the seas of today abound. There has been cognisance of saline waters since the early Middle Ages at the very least. They were originally utilised for the production of salt; their additional application in spa and health resort treatments dates from the mid nineteenth century.